Useful information about Milk and Dairy Products!

What should be taken account while consuming processed (pasteurized and UHT Milk) drinking milk?

  • Processed milk are placed on the shelves ready to be consumed. It can be consumed without carrying out any processes. It can be consumed after heating if it is desired to be heated, but it should not be boiled. There might be losses in nutritional value if it is boiled. Since pasteurized milk is not subjected to high temperature process, its shelf life is short. Therefore it should be stored in refrigerated conditions until it is consumed. In case it is opened it is advised to be consumed within one or two days.
  • Whereas long life milk (UHT) is a product that has been processed under high temperature for a short time. Therefore the microorganisms it had contained died due to high temperature. If unopened it can be stored for four months without going bad. Yet, if opened, it is advised to be stored in the refrigerator until being consumed.
  • The expiry date must be examined when buying processed milk.
  • Processed milk should not be stored after being poured into separate containers. This is because in such case the lastingness of the milk decreases.

What is the difference between pasteurized milk and UHT milk?

  • Pasteurized milk, which we also call as daily milk, is heat processed for 15 seconds at 72°C in state of the art closed systems and then immediately cooled in order to kill or neutralize disease causing (pathogen) bacteria contained in raw milk. This process is called pasteurization. The nutritional value of raw milk is not compromised due to pasteurization process. Through pasteurization the total number of live bacteria in milk decreases significantly. Also during this process some of the microorganisms are damaged. However when the suitable environment is established these microorganisms self-replicate and continue to reproduce. Therefore microbial reproduction may be seen during the storage of the milk. When stored under appropriate storage conditions, the shelf life of pasteurized milk is limited to a few days. So pasteurized milk should be stored in the refrigerator until it is consumed.
  • Whereas long life milk (Ultra High Temperature) is heat-treated for a few seconds at minimum 135 °C and then immediately cooled to eliminate the activities of microorganisms contained in raw milk. In this heat treatment high temperature is applied for a short time. The temperature and duration of application for UHT process kills all microorganisms in the milk and does not hinder the nutritional value of the milk. This process is called sterilization. UHT milk is packed in an aseptic environment in a way not to be exposed to air. The packaging material used in packaging consists of four layers of polyethylene, one layer of aluminum foil and one layer of paper, and protects the product within it from penetration of heat, light, moisture and gas. Therefore shelf life of UHT milk is four months. Being able to store UHT milk at room temperature and long shelf life unless the packaging of UHT milk is opened (during its shelf life) is a result of production/filling technology as well as highly protective properties of the packaging. UHT milk should be stored in the refrigerator until being consumed after the packaging is opened.

Are there any additives in long life milk?

  • No additives are used in long life milk by no means to extend their shelf life. It is processed to be long lasting using UHT method (heat treatment at ultra-high temperature for a short time), which is a state of the art process, and aseptic packaging technology. In UHT technology, by being subjected to high temperature for a short time, the milk is cleared from harmful microorganisms that may cause it to go bad. Thanks to its aseptic special packaging, external elements such as air and light are prevented from reaching the milk. As a result the freshness of the milk is ensured at room temperature throughout its shelf life. When UHT milk is produced and packed, they are processed through fully closed systems and filled in airtight environments. If such milk is stored under inappropriate conditions, for example, if stored outside of the refrigerator after being opened, the milk would go bad. This is the most obvious evidence that there are no additives in the product.

Does Milk Lose the Vitamins in UHT Process?

  • The ratio of drinking street milk in our country is around 70%. When we consume such street milk raw, we are exposed to chemicals, which we cannot detect, or microorganisms, which have been transmitted from the udder, contained in the milk. This in turn leads to diseases (brucella, tuberculosis) that may be fatal. Therefore consumers of street milk, boil it for a long time. During this long period of time, there may be losses in vitamins or decreases in nutritional value may occur. However, unlike this method, after being subjected to heat treatment at high temperature for a short time using pasteurization or UHT method, dairy products are immediately cooled. In this way while the microorganisms in the milk die, no losses of vitamins and nutritional value occur.

What are the benefits of packed milk?

  • Packed milk is produced in accordance with Turkish Food Codex (TGK).
    While packed milk attain the shelf life of the milk by only decreasing its microbiological load, unpacked street milk may contain additives to enrich its taste and extend its lasting time.
  • In packed milk, instead of boiling treatment which significantly changes the physical and chemical structure of the milk, its nutritional value, taste and smell, pasteurization and UHT processes, which preserve the properties of milk more when compared to boiling, are employed to decrease the microbiological load of the milk.
  • While raw milk used for packed milk is delivered without going bad to factories using cold chain, since cold chain could not be provided for milk available for consumption as raw in the street and without packaging the total bacteria load increases until the milk is delivered to the consumer and as a result toxins which cannot be eliminated with heat may form.

As per my ageI know I should drink milk. However milk causes gas in my stomach and intestines. Why? What can I do?

  • Milk contains an enzyme that breaks down milk sugar. So absorption in the intestines can occur. In some people the amount of such enzyme is low or none. This is a common condition for Turkish people or in Mediterranean countries. Since milk sugar cannot be broken down due to lack of enzyme, this sugar is broken down in the intestine through other means. Gas is released from such reaction and leads to gas (bloating). There is no remedy for such condition. People with such condition may increase their cheese consumption. It is true that in some circumstances milk consumption may lead to such undesired problems. However such ratio is rather low. In this context, two matters should be distinguished. In individuals without milk drinking habit, there may be a temporary intolerance against milk sugar (lactose). In such a case milk consumption should definitely not be given up, on the contrary consumption of milk should be gradually and slowly increased. Generally after a certain amount of time, there will be no problem in terms of milk consumption. The second matter is that milk can truly disturb the stomach. In such a case milk consumption should be made adequately, and milk should be consumed after meals instead of on an empty stomach. In addition yogurt consumption may be tried.

What are the benefits of processed milk?

  • It contains all the vitamins that dissolve in oil and water.
  • It reinforces and strengthens the fragile bodies of babies.
  • The protein that it contains ensures growth and development plays a major role in formation of hair and nails and helps with the contraction of muscles.
  • “Lactose”, which is milk sugar, enables the body to benefit more from calcium and phosphor.
  • It is important for bone and teeth formation.
  • Phospholipids in its oil are critical for brain and nerve cells.
  • It contains unsaturated fat acids necessary for the body.
  • Phosphor and calcium minerals it contains are key for eutrophy.
  • There is much more calcium, which is substantially important for human health, in half liter of milk when compared to some other food products.
  • Half liter of milk contains calcium as much as;
    5 kg of meat
    2,6 kg of bread
    6,3 kg of potatoes
    8,5 kg of apples
    1,6 kg of lettuce
    1,7 kg of carrots.

How Much Milk Should We Consume Daily? What portion of our need does a glass of milk covers?

  • Drinking milk should be consumed in following amounts as a minimum for a sufficient and balanced diet;
    Babies 750 g,
    Children 300-350 g,
    Youth 350 g,
    Adults-elderly 250-400 g
    Pregnant-breast feeding women 500 g.
  • A glass of milk covers 35% of the protein, 6% of Energy; 52% of Calcium, 30% of Potassium, 18% of Magnesium, 55% of Phosphor, 12% of Zinc, 30% of Iodine; 9% of Vitamin A, 11% of Vitamin B1, 44% of Vitamin B2, 13% of Vitamin B6, 98% of Vitamin B12, 12% of Folic acid, 16% of Niacin that a 6 years old child needs.

Suggestions regarding milk consumption

  • Drink at least 2 glasses of milk each day to grow, develop and age healthily.
  • Try to use milk and dairy products which are the best source of calcium in every meal.
  • Instead of tea, coffee, gaseous and high energy content beverages, prefer consuming milk and dairy products between meals.
  • Do not forget to drink milk and then brush your teeth before going to bed at night.
  • Drink milk with your child.
  • Add milk to mashes and soups to increase milk consumption.
  • Prefer milky deserts instead of pastry for your child.
  • Prefer sauces containing milk (béchamel, etc.) especially for vegetable dishes.
  • Develop milk containing new recipes with your child and try them out together.
  • If your child is overweight prefer low fat milk over whole-fat milk.

Suggestions for those who cannot drink milk with its own taste:

  • Cinnamon powder can be added to milk. Cinnamon may break the desire for sugar, yet if you still does not like it, you could add some honey instead of sugar.
  • Due to the calcium it contains, ground carob would supplement the health benefits provided by milk and reinforce the light taste of milk with its slightly sweet aroma and the cacao color it gives out.
  • Instead of consuming milk flavored with artificial flavors, you can mix the milk with 1 package of vanilla and any fresh fruit you prefer in a blender to consume fruit flavored, but healthy milk not purged from, on the contrary enriched with nutritional elements.
  • If chocolate flavor is a must, milk prepared with cacao, which is rich in potassium, vanilla and 1 desert spoon of honey would make you look no further for chocolate flavor.
  • You can also obtain a delicious taste by adding a little coffee (Turkish coffee in particular) to milk.

How is Enka Natural Yogurt made?

  • After the raw milk, which comes from milk collection centers and for which all quality analyses have been performed by milk technologists, who are experts in their field, is received in our factory, it is sent to our pasteurized unit for yogurt production. Milk is subjected to evaporation process in our state of the art units so that the desired protein and milk dry matter can be obtained. Through this process, it is ensured that some of the abundant amount (approximately 88%) of water contained in milk evaporates.
  • In the past, our mothers were using yogurt as yeast while making yogurt at home. This yogurt used for fermentation is called as yogurt culture today. Starter bacteria are used for fermentation of yogurt. These bacteria have been isolated within the yogurt through scientific methods, reproduced and their vitality has been maintained in special environments. Nowadays yogurt culture is defined as such bacteria being isolated and used. The bacteria contained in this culture also have a vitality period like other bacteria. These bacteria generate milk acid during development. It is not possible for them to survive in the yogurt, which has gone bad due to this acid they generate. When such bacteria are alive, they have many benefits towards human health. Therefore, since suitable environment and temperature cannot develop for homemade yogurt and we cannot know vitality conditions and purity of the bacteria in the yogurt; our yogurt production is carried out by using a specially developed isolated culture with known vitality, instead of the yeast used in homemade yogurt.

Why does homemade yogurt go bad, while packed yogurts don’t?

  • Yogurt is produced under proper production conditions, stored in proper storage conditions and does not go bad if packed. Proper production conditions means an environment, which does not have harmful bacteria that causes yogurt to go bad. Proper storage conditions means storage temperature and durable packaging. If yogurt is kept under improper storage conditions (at room temperature and open packaging) foreign microorganisms in the air settle on the surface of the yogurt and get access to the nutrients they need through yogurt and lead to molds and yogurt going bad. This does not necessarily mean that packed yogurt will not go bad. After being opened, if we store packed yogurt improperly, it would also be exposed to microorganism load in the environment. This condition depends on the ambient temperature and the duration of exposure and at the end mold may form on the surface of the yogurt.

What it milk powder? Is milk powder used in yogurt production?

  • Majority of milk is composed of water. After some of the water contained in raw milk is evaporated using special technological processes, the durable and nutritious product obtained through powdering of the condensed product is called as milk powder. In yogurt production, either the water in the milk is removed through evaporation (with an evaporator) or dry matter of the milk is increased through adding milk powder to increase the dry matter ratio to the desired level. Otherwise, the resulting yogurt would have a loose structure that releases water easily when a spoon is immersed. It is utterly wrong to perceive milk powder as a harmful additive added to yogurt since milk powder is the essence of milk rather than a foreign matter.

Why does butter have yellow and white color? Which one is healthier?

  • As known butter can be yellow or white in color. This is due to the feeding style of the cow from which the milk is obtained. Milk of cows that feed additive-free in a natural environment with green grass or fodder becomes yellow. The reason for this is the carotenoid contained in grass. This matter usually dissolves in fat. This matter dissolving in fat makes the butter more yellow. In either case butter does not lose any of its nutritional value and is healthy.

What is margarine? Can it be used instead of butter?

  • Margarine is a product produced through solidification of vegetative oils by saturation thereof using a chemical method called hydrogenation to replace butter. This process is a chemical process that extends the shelf life of the product. During hydrogenation process some of the vegetable oils transforms into very harmful trans fatty acids. Whereas butter is a fully natural animal product which is obtained from milk and contains 80%-82% milk fat. When margarine is taken into the body, it has a high possibility to block the veins due to having a high melting point. In this regard butter is much more healthy than margarine and it is not suitable to use margarine as a replacement to butter.

What is the difference between cultured white cheese and classic white cheese?

  • When cultured white cheese is produced, the milk used in production is put through pasteurization process. Thus it is ensured that the harmful microorganisms contained in milk die. However this temperature also harms useful bacteria within milk which we call starter bacteria. So in cultured white cheese production starter culture is supplemented during production to ensure development of cheese. With this culture supplement both the acidic development required for cheese production and the desired cheese taste can be obtained. This product is placed on the market ready to be consumed right after production.
  • For classic white cheese, when cheese is produced, the milk used in production is put through heat treatment at lower temperatures. In this way while the harmful bacteria in the milk die, the beneficial ones are preserved. However in order to ensure proper acidic development and desired taste, such cheese is matured in our special warehouses for at least 3 months. As a result classic white cheese, which has a heavier taste when compared to cultured cheese, becomes ready for consumption.

What are the characteristics of white cheese with the right consistency that distinguish it from any other cheese?

    • The basic characteristic of white cheese with the right consistency that distinguishes it from any other cheese is the soft texture of the cheese dissolving in the mouth. This results from the different technology used in cheese production when compared to other types of cheeses. This white cheese, which is included in our semi-firm cheese group, does not break into pieces when it is sliced.